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Досемитский субстрат в языках Южной Аравии

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Статья - Roger Blench, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula. Многое в этой статье стоит воспринимать критически, но привлек внимание один момент:

There is no real doubt that the ancestors of both epigraphic (ESA) and modern South Arabian (MSA) were languages spoken in the Near East rather than Ethiopia. But the date and processes whereby the speakers of these languages migrated and diversified are unknown. Apart from inscriptions that can be read, some contain evidence for completely unknown languages co-existing with ESA. Beeston (1981: 181) cites an inscription from Marib which begins in Sabaean but then switches to an unknown language. He mentions several other texts which have similar morphology (a final –k suffix) and which may represent an unknown non-Semitic language (or possibly a Nilo-Saharan language such as Kunama, for which such a feature would be typical).

Вот цитата из статьи (Beeston, A.F.L. 1981. Languages of Pre-Islamic Arabia), которую упоминает автор:

Even in the early centuries A.D. there were other languages than the Sayhadic group in use in Yemen, of which however we possess only very exiguous evidence. One inscription from Marib is a votive text beginning with a formulaic preamble in 'classical' Sabaic, but then switches abruptly to an unknown language: though this contains a fair number of lexical items congruous with Sabaic, it shows an incidence of words ending in -k which would be wholly unnatural in Sabaic, and it cannot in any way be interpreted as Sabaic. A preponderance of words ending in -k is found also in an as yet indecipherable text from the southern escapment'. A third is a still unpublished rock inscription again showing a high proportion of -k endings - and which, most interestingly, looks as if it is in verse.

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Небольшой очерк эритрейского языка Кунама, который является изолятом (макрокомпаративисты включают его в нило-сахарскую макросемью):

http://llmap.org/languages/kun.png

http://www.baden-kunama.com/language-THE GRAMMAR OF THE KUNAMA LANGUAGE.html

In this part of our study of the Kunama language, we shall be taking a step-by-step approach to its grammar. We shall begin with personal and possessive pronouns followed by the form and conjugation of the verb in the Kunama language. We shall be adopting the usual pattern, Kunama, IPA transcript and English. Under  "Kunama",  words are listed which are then transcribed in international phonetic alphabets  "IPA"  and translated into  "English". The Kunama language possesses eleven (11) personal pronouns:

three (3) singular personal pronouns:

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

Aba

aba

I

Ena

ena

you

Unu

unu

he/she/it

four (4) dual or so-called "inclusive and exclusive pronouns":

kime

^ kime

we two  (inclusive you)

eme

^ e:m

you and he/she

ame

^ ame

we two (exclusive you)

ime

^ i:me

he/she and he/she

four (4)  inclusive and exclusive plural personal pronouns:

kime

' kime

we (inclusive you)

eme

' eme

you

ame

' ame

we  exclusive you)

ime

' im

they


THE KUNAMA VERB

As it will be later described in detail, in the conjugation of the verb, the Kunama language often omits the personal pronouns by replacing them with a series of prefixes through which each person is identified. The Kunama is one of those, known and classified by most linguists, as  "Nilo-Saharan or Chari-Nile languages which have only words and syllables that are open (i.e., end in vowels)"  *1.  We begin with the infinitive forms of the Kunama verbs which therefore, always end with the vowel  "a".

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

Kosa

kosa

be/exist

Inna

' ina

have/possess

Mina

' mina

do/make

*1.  Encyclopaedia Britannica:  "Nilo-Saharan Languages".

Like the English, the Kunama verb too has the simple and the present progressive form. The simple present and past tense of some Kunama verbs have an identical form though implying a different time. Simple present tense of the verb "kosa", to be/exist:

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

1. (aba) na-kos-ke (na-kos-se)

' nakoske

I am/exist

2. ena no-kos-ke

' nokoske

you are

3. unu kos-ke

' koske

he/she/it is

4. kime   ka-kos-ke

' kakoske

we two (inclusive you) are

5. eme    me-kos-ke

' mekoske

you two are

6. ame    ma-kos-ke

' makoske

we two (exclusive you) are

7. ime    mi-kos-ke

' mikoske

they two are

8. kime   ka-kos-ke

kakoske

we (inclusive you) are

9. eme    mi-kos-ke

mikoske

you are

10. ame    ma-kos-ke

makoske

we (exclusive you) are

11. ime     o-kos-ke

okoske

they are

E.g. (Aba) alle `nakoske (nakosse) is a dialectal ending. I am here/present.

The verb  "ina",  to have/possess:

1. nai-na-ke

nainake

I have/had

2. ni-na-ke

ninake

you have

3. i-na-ke

inake

he/she/it has

4. kai-na-ke

' kainake

we two (inclusive you) have

5. mei-na-ke

' meinake

you  and  he/she have

6. mai-na-ke

' mainake

we (exclusive you)  have

7. mi-na-ke

' minake

they two have

8. kai-na-ke

kai 'nake

we (inclusive you) have

9. mi-na-ke

mi 'nake

you have

10. mai-na-ke

mai 'nake

we (exclusive you)  have

11. oi-na-ke

oi 'nake

they have

E.g.  (Unu)  sana  ki`nake. he/she has a job  (he/she is busy).

The Kunama language adds a "k" to a verb whenever this implies a different meaning.

E.g. (Unu) sana  in`ake. he/she has a job  (an employment).
 
Notice the high and the low pitch of the voice  (or inflection)   put on the first and second syllables in the conjugation of the above verb in concordance with the inclusive and exclusive personal pronouns.

The simple present and the past tense of the verb "mina", to do/make:

1. na-ming-ke

na`mi-n-ke

I do/did; make/made

2. ni-ming-ke

ni`mi-n-ke

you do

3. i-mingke

i`mi-n-ke

he/she/it does

4. ka-ming-ke

' kami-n-ke

we two  (inclusive you)

5. me-ming-ke

' memi-n-ke

you two do

6. ma-ming-ke

' mami-n-ke

we two (exclusive you) do

7. mi-ming-ke

' mimi-n-ke

they two do

8. ka-ming-ke

ka`mi-n-ke

we (inclusive you) do

9. mi-ming-ke

mi`mi-n-ke

you do

10. ma-ming-ke

ma`mi-n-ke

we (exclusive you) do

11. o-ming-ke

o`mi-n-ke

they do

E.g.  Fogada na`mingke. I made a mistake.

This verb implies more the past than the present ten:

E.g. (`Ame) fogada ma`mingke. We did/made a mistake.

As it is shown in the above diagrams, the conjugations of most Kunama verbs include three parts: the beginning, the middle and the ending of the verb. In the above verbs, the beginning consists of the prefixes indicating the eleven personal pronouns; the middle  (or infix)  is the root of the verb and the suffix "ke" is the normal ending of the conjugations of all the Kunama verbs.

For the progressive forms, the Kunama language adopts, as an auxiliary, the verb, "godda" =  live/sit.

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

1. go-na-ke

gonake

I sit/sat

2. go-ng-ke

gongke

you sit/sat

3. go-s-ke

goske

he/she/it sits/sat

4. go-d-ke

ki:`me godke

we two (inclusive you)

5. go-ng-ke

e:` me gongke

you two sit/sat

6. go-ma-ke

a:`me gomake

we two (exclusive) you

7. go-ng-ke

i:`me gongke

they two

8. go-d-ke

ki`me godke

we (inclusive you)

9. go-ng-ke

e`me gongke

you

10. go-ma-ke

a`me  gomake

we (exclusive you)

11. go-ng-ke

i`me  gongke

they

E.g.  I`me  maida gongke. They live well.

Notice the peculiarity of the above verb where, because of both lack of accentuation and the identical spelling for the personal pronouns, four to eleven (4-11), the Kunama language is obliged to use the inclusive and the exclusive personal pronouns to avoid misunderstanding.

E.g.  I:` me  maida gongke. They two live well.

Adopting, as an auxiliary, the verb "godda = live/sit", the conjugation of the present progressive of the verb "kosa = be/exist" therefore, is as follows:

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

1. (aba) na-kos-gona-ke

nakosgonake

I am being/existing

2. no-kos-gong-ke

nokosgongke

you are

3. kos-gos-ke

kosgoske

he/she/it

4. ka-kos-god-ke

' kakosgodke

we two (inclusive you)

5. me-kos-gong-ke

' mekosgongke

he/she/it and you

6. ma-kos-goma-ke

' makosgomake

he/she/it and I

7. mi-kos-gong-ke

' mikosgongke

they two

8. ka-kos-god-ke

kakosgodke

we two (inclusive you)

9. mi-kos-gong-ke

mikosgongke

you

10. ma-kos-goma-ke

makosgomake

we (exclusive you)

11. o-kos-gong-ke

okosgongke

they

E.g. Tama alle makosgomake. We are (being) here now.

Like the Tigrigna and the Amarigna, the Kunama language too places the verb at the end of a sentence.

The simple present progressive form of the verb,  "ina  =  have/possess":

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

1. na-ina-gona-ke

nainagonake

I am having/possessing

2. n-ina-gong-ke

ninagongke

you are

3. ina-gos-ke

inagoske

he/she/it is

4. ka-ina-god-ke

' kainagodke

we two (inclusive you)

5. me-ina-gong-ke

' meinagongke

you two

6. ma-ina-goma-ke

' mainagomake

we two (exclusive you)

7. meina-gong-ke

' meinagongke

you two

8. ka-ina-god-ke

kai ' nagodke

we (inclusive you)

9. m ina-gong-ke

mi ' nagongke

you

10. ma-ina-goma-ke

ma ' inagomake

we (exclusive you)

11. o-ina-gong-ke

oina ' gongke

they

E.g. E:`me fanaka maida meinagongke. You two are having a good time.

The simple present progressive of the verb 'mina = do/make:

Kunama:

IPA transcript:

English:

1. na-ming-gona-ke

na ' minggonake

I am doing/making

2. ni-ming-gong-ke

ni ' minggongke

you are

3. im-ing-gos-ke

i ' minggoske

he/she/it is

4. ka-ming-god-ke

ka ' minggodke

we two (inclusive you)

5. me-ming-gong-ke

' meminggongke

you two

6. ma-ming-goma-ke

' maminggomake

we two (exclusive you)

7. mi-ming-gong-ke

' mimiggongke

they two

8. kam-ing-god-ke

ka ' minggodke

we (inclusive you)

9. me-ming-gong-ke

me ' minggongke

you

10. ka-ming-god-ke

ka ' minggodke

we (exclusive you)

11. o-ming-gong-ke

o ' minggongke

they

E.g. Mantai mina maida ki `mingogske. Mantai is doing a good job.

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Roger D. Woodard, The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia: Ancient South Arabian, 2008 (p. 176) написал(а):

In addition to the normal common Semitic words such as kinship terms, parts of the body, numbers, and so forth, Ancient South Arabian possesses a very independent vocabulary, which seems to be relatively isolated within the Semitic lexicon. In many cases a semantic comparison with other Semitic languages, even when the root and the corresponding derivative are attested in them, is scarcely helpful, and rarely leads to a satisfactory solution in a specific epigraphic context. As an example may be mentioned the wooden sticks, the interpretation of which ismade extremely difficult not only because of the minuscule script, but primarily because of the partly unknown vocabulary.

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Обратите внимание на концентрацию носителей гаплогруппы E в юго-западной части Йемена, через которую лежит дорога из Африки. Думаю, это могут быть следы сабжа...

увеличить

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