lesson № 1
totto: topenpe an na. e yan.
unarpe: sonno keraan.
totto: usey e=ku rusuy ya?
unarpe: ku=ku rusuy na
totto - mother
unarpe - aunt
topen-pe - cakes/candies
an - to be/to exist/to present
na - emphatic assertive particle
e - to eat (t.v.)
yan - particle used when polite imperative is formed
iyayraykere - thanx
keraan - to be tasty (stative verb)
sonno - really/truely
usey - hot water/boiling water (here is used to denote tea/coffe)
rusuy - want
ya - question marker particle
ku= personal affix of 1sg.sb.
o - here you are
hioy'oy - thanx (unformal)
mother: this is candies, eat please.
mother: is it tasty?
aunt: it's very tasty.
mother: wish you drink tea/coffee?
aunt: I wish.
mother: here you are.
1. iyayraykere - is the most widely used word to express gratitute. iyayraykere can be used by both men and women while hioy'oy is used mostly by women. hioy'oy is also used when they address to children.
2. imperative expressions
when they address to one person imperative form is just verb stem, for example: e - eat,
when they address to more than one person particle yan should be placed after the verb stem: e yan; and the same expression is used as respectful order addressed to one person.
3. interrogative sentences
there are different ways to ask common (yes/no) question. the easiest way is slight rise of intonation in the end of a sentence. then it is possible to form interrogative sentence using interrogative particle 'ya' which is placed in the very end of the sentence. when particle 'ya' is used slight intonation rising in the end of sentence also takes place.
4. personal affixes/personal markers
in Ainu verb should be obligatory expressed person and number of subject and object by different personal affixes. right now you are to remember the following two personal markers:
'I drink' is ku=ku,
'you drink' is e=ku
(for convenience of allocation of personal affixes in text they separate from words to which are attached, by the mean of a sign "=")
5. emphatic sentence final particle 'na'
The particle na when is placed in the end of a sentence has the meaning of inducing a interlocutor to make something, it has the meaning of turn to some actions for example, if it is told: topen-pe an - that it simply ascertaining of the fact: 'here are cakes' and when it is told topen-pe an na is means 'here are cakes, eat!'.