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Dawenkou

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http://history.cultural-china.com/en/52H3909H10655.html

It is said that over 4,000 years ago there lived along the Changjiang River (the Yangtze River) and Huanghe River (the Yellow River) valleys many clan tribes. Of them, the Huang, Yan and Chiyou were the most famous. The Huang tribe lived first in the northwestern part of China (now Shaanxi Province), then moved eastward, and remained at last in the mountain valleys in present-day Zhuolu County, Hebei Province. Still, they led a nomadic life. The Yan tribe lived in an area from the Weihe River valley to the middle reaches of the Huanghe River. The Chiyou tribe, also known as "Jiuli" nationality, lived in the eastern part of China (now the area of Shandong and Henan provinces). In their long years of communications, big wars between the three tribes broke out several times in the northern part of today's Hebei.
After the Yan tribe moved from the Weihe River valley to the middle reaches of the Huanghe River, long-drawn-out conflicts between the Yan and Chiyou tribes began. Defeated by the Chiyou tribe, the Yan tribe fled to Zhuolu, Hebei and joined the Huang tribe. Afterwards, the Yan and Huang tribes fought shoulder to shoulder in a big battle against the Chiyou tribe in Zhuolu. The Chiyou tribe was defeated, and Chiyou himself was killed by the victor, the Huang tribe. This is the well-known "Zhuolu Battle" recorded in Chinese history books.

The Chiyou tribe, also known as "Jiuli" nationality, lived in the eastern part of China (now the area of Shandong and Henan provinces). In their long years of communications, big wars between the three tribes broke out several times in the northern part of today's Hebei.

Henan:

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Shangdong:

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The Dawenkou culture (Chinese: 大汶口文化; pinyin: dàwènkǒu wénhuà) is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. The culture existed from 4100 BC to 2600 BC, co-existing with the Yangshao culture. Turquoise, jade and ivory artefacts are commonly found at Dawenkou sites. The earliest examples of alligator drums appear at Dawenkou sites.

Archaeologists commonly divide the culture into three phases: the early phase (4100-3500 BC), the middle phase (3500-3000 BC) and the late phase (3000-2600 BC). Based on the evidence from grave goods, the early phase was highly egalitarian. The phase is typified by the presence of individually designed, long-stemmed cups (gu). Graves built with earthern ledges became increasingly common during the latter parts of the early phase. During the middle phase, grave goods began to emphasize quantity over diversity. During the late phase, wooden coffins began to appear in Dawenkou burials. The culture became increasingly stratified, as some graves contained no grave goods while others contained a large quantity of grave goods.

The type site at Dawenkou, located in Tai'an, Shandong, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978. Only the middle layer at Dawenkou is associated with the Dawenkou culture, as the earliest layer corresponds to the Beixin culture and the latest layer corresponds to the early Shandong variant of the Longshan culture.

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Ceramics from Dawenkou

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Contemporary Hmong Artifacts

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More artufacts:

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And more

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Ceramics from Daewnkou

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Ceramics from Daewnkou

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Dawenkou Ceramics

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Ceramics From Dawenkou

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Contemporary Hmong Batik

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Contemporary Hmong Batik

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Dawenkou ceramics

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maps

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inscriptions and signs

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Birthplace of a civilization
(2007-10-07)

With its 5,000-year-old history, Shandong Province is considered one of the birthplaces of Chinese civilization.

Shandong is situated in the eastern part of China on the lower reaches of the Yellow River. It borders the Bohai and Huanghai seas to the east, overlooking the Korean Peninsula and the Japan Archipelago across a vast stretch of sea. The province has a population of more than 90 million spread over a total area of 156,000 square kilometers.

Many historical figures have called Shandong home, including Confucius, whose influence on China's culture and society is felt to this day. A visit to the Confucius Temple, the Confucius Mansion and the Confucius Cemetery in Qufu is one of the best ways to find out more about the great thinker.

Shandong is endowed with numerous scenic spots, bursting with natural beauty and cultural flavor.

The inscriptions on the clay pots unearthed at Dawenkou and Dinggongcun are believed to bear the earliest Chinese written language.

Portions of the Great Wall in Shandong, built during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC), are believed to be some of the oldest sections of the entire wall.

Shandong is also blessed with beautiful landscapes. Some of the most famous spots are Mount Tai, Laoshan Mountain and the seaside of the Jiaodong Peninsula. Mount Tai is known as the place where ancient kings paid their respects to the sky.

In 1987 and 1994, respectively, Mount Tai and the Confucian landmarks in Qufu were inducted onto the World Cultural and Natural Heritage List by UNESCO. Jinan, Shandong's provincial capital, is one of the most famous and historical cities in China. It gets its name, "Spring City", from the many natural springs there.

Shandong is also known as the birthplace of China's pottery, porcelain and silk. Throughout the province, tourists can find traditional items like the clocks and watches of Yantai, the porcelain of Zibo, the kites of Weifang, and the shell-carving of Qingdao.

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